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Full text of "Linguistic Survey Of India Vol Ii Mon Khmer Siamese Chinese Families"

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3 K»
fourth or *high* tone in Shan. Jt is Evident that the nvtlioft n^i-ted tor H!:rat?n<r it
is unsatisfactory when the word consists ol a siude VQWP!,
(4) The emphatic tone. In this there Is nn nhrupt t^r.rnmtw, w nirM^i cf^nwi
of the voice at the end of the word Robinson indices i: ],y a »lo$ uui-v thi rmM,
as in ma, a horse. It corresponds to Dr. Cushine's liffh or 4 '^:),W'e ' r^n.
The above system makes no provision for Dr. fnshmu's RMjoVi CF '^tve* tope, m»
for his double series of closed and open tone*.
So far aa is possible, I shall follow Robinson's s>sfp^i of indicating tones tliroiifirhont
the grammatical sketch only, The area of vocalrakry eovpjWl V Ir^ account of ihe
language is too small to allow me to extend his system to th* wi-som*
Robinson is not always consistent in his reprpsentatiui ol' ton»% and lor KW words
in the grammatical sketch I have been unable to asculain t.lw tones ^ith certainty.
Hence my indications should only he accepted finite de WWJB*
Tor further information on the general subject of tones reference should bft made
to pp. 67 and if. ante,
Article.—The indefinite article is formed by adding d-lwgt one, after the noun;
as in ooiS ^c^S tow d-lmg,, a certain man. Por the definite article, the
pronoun mi, this, is often used. Thus <j j§ mn $Afl«, pigs, ^ ^ jg ;w« n«» A-/i««,
the pigs.
Gender,—Gender is unknown. In order to distinguish sex, either different words
are used, such as GOT jpo, father, <s5 m& mother, or .else differentiating words are
added.
in the latter case, the male word is chai for human beings, thuk for inferior animals,
and^yUfor birds. The female word is pa-ying or shmt for human beings, mi lor-
inferior animals and birds. Thus,—
ojoS t^cf   W chai, son,                    c^oS c§   iwA */*««, daughter.
0^8   *3g^S  o]_  vtf id-dnpa, cJiai) &   O)S  JSg^S  o^  c88   t5-rf» j?d   y%3  a
male child,                                      female child,
on   08oS ma thuk, a horse,                 o"[ GO ma met a mate,
o oS oj noA pM, a male bird,          S£O$ GO noA- met a hen bird.
¥umber»—The plural is indicated (when necessary) by prefixing or sum sing khitu.
When there is a pronoun or definite article it is suffixed to it. Thus,—
So5 ^jf $M ^au> ducks; 8o5 <s>* j£ pet nai Mau, the dticks; £D"[ &<$ f
<^5 a-nem A//a« ngo, those (a-n«») cows. In Ahom, Jchau is prefixed.
Case,—The relationship of case is formed by prefixing or suffixing wordsf as in-
Ahom.
The Nominative takes no prefix or suffix.
The Accusatiie usually takes no suffix.   Sometimes it takes oy mat.
Mai is also optionally used as a suffix of the daiive and the locutwe.